Emerging Tropical Diseases in the USA: Poster Presented at NIH Feb 2013 Print

Name :  Remigius Okea

Date  :  02-Apr-2013

Remigius Okea

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American Academy of Primary Care Research Tropical Disease Institutes

Emerging Tropical Diseases in the USA

Remigius Okea and Alphonsus Ekwerike

(American Academy Of Primary Care Research and Science Medicine Research Institute)

Abstract

Introduction:

Many tropical diseases are re-emerging, spreading and becoming global problems. Malaria, West Nile virus, severe Dengue, Chagas disease (American Tripanosomiasis), Schistosomiasis and Cysticercosis stand out and affect estimated half a billion people. Over 1,000,000 people mainly children and pregnant women die each year from Malaria (http://www.ncats.nih.gov/about/faq/neglected/neglected-faq.html#How many people are affected by neglected diseases). Over 575,000 cases of cerebral malaria are reported annually most cases in sub-Saharan Africa. Of the 1,691 cases of Malaria reported in the USA in 2010, 176 cases or 10% were severe malaria and 27% of those were cerebral malaria a rise from 2009 figures. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss6102a1.htm  Observation from malaria trends in sub-Saharan Africa indicate that plasmodium falciparum have developed an increased level of virulence manifested by a rise in severe malaria and cerebral malaria.

**This becomes a problem that CDC should watch. Malaria parasite and Mosquitoes are deadly and are very much in the United States but rarely known to the American public and healthcare providers. 

Preventive Proposal:

Preventing mosquito bites by eating certain foods or medicines shall be studied. Particular interests have arisen from anecdotal observation that certain loads of pyridoxine may prevent mosquito bites. Similar effects have been suggested by local persons that ate Hippocrateaceae Welwitschii (Ovurumgbede). Preventing mosquito bites may be the cost effective way to prevent other mosquito transmitted diseases including West Nile virus, Dengue Fever, and Yellow Fever.

Research Proposal:

We shall study cerebral malaria cases in sub-Saharan Africa with emphasis on the determinants of the virulence of Plasmodium Falciparum malaria species. Cerebral Malaria research collaboration program shall be established to support two university centers in sub-Saharan Africa. Eligible patients that meet the criteria of disease shall be enrolled with consent and studied including isolating the malaria protozoa and studying its’ characteristics.

We shall also study the effect of various loads of pyridoxine on the prevention of mosquito bites, and thus malaria, by studying subjects in sub-Saharan Africa exposed to 3 different doses of the medicine over a period of 6 weeks. Initially consented individuals in a household shall be screened and cleared of malaria and treated for the hypnozoic stages of the various species of plasmodium before they can be enrolled into the study.

Lead Prospective:

Cerebral malaria cases have remained steady or on the rise in the last several years.

Certain foods or medicines including certain loads of pyridoxine may prevent mosquito bites. Similar effects have been suggested by local persons that ate Hippocrateaceae Welwitschii (Ovurumgbede).

Conclusion:

From all indications, mosquito infestations in the USA is on the rise but policy and awareness  of  this, is  rare and remote despite the good number of  tropical country travelers  in and from  the USA. 

Preventing mosquito bites may be a cost effective way to prevent mosquito transmitted diseases including Malaria, West Nile virus, Dengue Fever, and Yellow Fever.